Ch. 9 Vocabulary Terms and People: The Greek World

Chapter 9 Terms

The Greek World

pp. 272-294


  1. Cyrus the Great - King of Persia who led Persia to become an empire; King of Persia who conquered the Babylonians and allowed the Jews to return to Judah.

  2. Immortals - the king’s standing bodyguard

  3. Darius I - son-in-law of King Cyrus who increased the Persian Empire; he organized the empire into provinces led by satraps under his control

  4. provinces - districts or territories

  5. satraps - governors of the provinces

  6. Royal Road - transportation route that connected major cities throughout Persian Empire

  7. Persepolis - means “city of Persia;” it was the second capital of the Persian Empire

  8. Zoroastrianism - religion of the ancient Persians that began under Darius

  9. Persian Wars - the wars between the Greek city-states and the Persian Empire

  10. Xerxes I - son of Darius and King of Persia during the days of Esther; Xerxes led the second invasions of the Greek city-states

  11. Thermopylae - Greek city-state where the Persians defeated Leonidas and his Spartan army of 300.

  12. helots - Spartan slaves

  13. alliance - an agreement of political groups to unite together

  14. Delian League - an alliance of Athens and other Greek city-states formed to unite against the Persians

  15. Peloponnesian War - War between Athens and Sparta

  16. Philip II - father of Alexander the Great; King of Macedonia

  17. phalanx - a military formation of soldiers marching into battle as one unit

  18. Alexander the Great - King of Macedonia who united the Greek city-states into an empire that included much of Europe, Asia and Egypt

  19. Hellenistic - under Greek influence; to be Greek-like

  20. Parthenon - famous temple at the Acropolis in Athens built by Pericles to worship Athena








  1. Aristophanes - play-writer who wrote comedies; known as the “Father of Comedies”

  2. Thucydides - Greek historian who wrote the History of the Peloponnesian War

  3. Socrates - Greek philosopher who used questioning to determine reasoning called the Socratic Method

  4. Plato - Greek philosopher who studied under Socrates; famous for his writing of The Republic

  5. The Republic - Plato’s famous book written as a guide for establishing a democracy; it was used as a foundation in the writing of the U.S. Constitution.

  6. Aristotle - Greek philosopher who studied under Plato and was famous as the tutor for Alexander the Great

  7. reason - to question, debate, hypothesize an outcome

  8. Euclid - “Father of Geometry”

  9. Hippocrates - “Father of Medicine”

  10. Archimedes - Greek mathematician and scientist who calculated Pi; invented the catapult; developed advanced machines with levers and pulleys; developed calculations of volume and surface area of a sphere

  11. Eratosthenes - Greek mathematician and astronomer who measured the circumference of the earth and stated that the earth was round

  12. Aristarchus - Greek mathematician and astronomer who first proposed that the sun is the center of the universe and that the earth revolves around the sun

  13. Pythagoras - Greek mathematician known for his measurement of angles called the Pythagorean Theorem

  14. Pheidippides - Greek soldier who made his famous 26 mile run from Marathon to Athens to announce the Greek victory over the Persians

  15. Herodotus - “Father of History”